At present, widely used damping materials are viscoelastic materials with viscous liquid and elastic solid properties. The most commonly used viscoelastic materials are high molecular polymers, which are assembled from small, simple chemical units. These chemical units are polymerized by molecular chains in a three-dimensional direction such as dendrites, tens of thousands of molecules copolymerized or polycondensed. The vibration isolators commonly used in mechanical engineering mainly include spring vibration isolators, rubber vibration isolators, and spring and rubber combination vibration isolators. The spring isolator has poor damping and a suitable operating frequency range, so the application is limited. The rubber isolator has good damping performance, the maximum damping ratio can reach about 0.23, and it is easy to process and can be prepared into various complicated shapes. However, the rubber vibration isolator is not suitable for vibration isolation under high and low temperature and corrosive environments, and has disadvantages such as poor oil resistance, poor moisture resistance, aging, and vacuum evaporation.
Metallic rubber technology originated in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s. In order to solve the problems of damping, damping, throttling and sealing in space environment such as aerospace and defense, it is proposed to prepare structural members with different properties by using porous mesh materials composed of metal spiral coils. In the first decade, the research work focused on the preparation process and analysis method of rubber metal isolators
for damping vibration reduction. In the mid-1980s, the use of metal rubber components to solve the problem of damping and damping under high and low temperature, large temperature difference, strong radiation and corrosive environment has achieved great success, which has promoted the progress and development of Russian national defense construction to a certain extent. On this basis, the application of metal rubber technology in the field of sealing, throttling and filtration was carried out by utilizing the capillary properties of metal rubber components, and the wide application of metal rubber components in space environment reached its peak. Metal rubber technology has therefore become a key national defense technology that is absolutely confidential.
Because the metal rubber component is made of wire and does not contain any ordinary rubber, but has the same elasticity and porosity as ordinary rubber, it is especially suitable for damping, damping, throttling and seal under high temperature, low temperature, large temperature difference, corrosion and other working conditions. The excellent performance of metal rubber components under special circumstances is unmatched by other components. Russia has solved many difficult problems in the defense and aerospace fields by using metal rubber technology. Metal-rubber components have been hailed as meritorious elements for advancing Russian defense and aerospace technology. It is precisely because metal rubber technology plays a huge role in Russia's national defense and aerospace, so its key technology is always in absolute secrecy.
Inside the metal rubber material, the number of contact points between the wires determines the dry friction damping properties of the metal rubber member. The effect of the external load not only changes the number of contact points in the metal rubber member, but also causes a corresponding nonlinear change in the stiffness and damping of the member. The internal structure of the metal rubber material is a spatial network structure like a rubber polymer structure formed by interlacing the wires together. When it is subjected to vibration displacement, the dry friction damping of the metal rubber can dissipate a large amount of energy and reduce the vibration. For cylindrical components, the contact area between the inner layers of the material will increase as the external load acts along the axis of the member. When the load acts in the shear direction, relative slip occurs between the contact layers, and the contact area also changes. The relative slip between the layers forms the dry friction damping inside the metal rubber material, dissipating the vibration energy of the external load.
Application prospects in missile weapon systems
1) Theoretical study on perfecting metal rubber
Because metal rubber is a new type of vibration isolating damping material, it is not perfect in theory. This material is a porous material, and the establishment of mathematical models and physical models are difficult topics. For practicality, experiments are used in the actual design and production process to further verify the correctness of the mathematical model and the physical model, and further modify the model.
2) Launching the cabin instrument damper
In the case of ground equipment, the damping of the cabins on the launch vehicle and the transport vehicle, the internal damping of the cabin, and the buffer damping at the front bracket and the middle bracket are studied in detail. According to the requirements of the internal vibration of the cabin and the internal vibration of the cabin, samples are prepared to meet the requirements of certain working conditions. At the same time, in the process of preparation, the design of metal rubber design is optimized for each vibration isolation frequency, making the design more scientific. Optimize the preparation of metal rubber and reduce the human involvement to provide a good foundation for the serialization and stability of the product.
3) The instrument damping damper of missile
According to the development and production of the ground rubber metal damping isolators, in addition to the complex design of the vibration isolation damping system of the inertial component, the vibration damping of other missile instruments only determines the preparation process of the vibration isolator for the frequency range of the vibration isolation. The goal is to make the metal rubber exert its superior vibration damping performance on the ground or on the bullet. This is a great boost to improve the application reliability and maintenance support of the entire missile weapon system. This research makes the preparation and production of metal rubber more scientific, and makes theoretical analysis more complete and accurate. The application of metal rubber throughout the missile weapon system will increase the technological content of the weapon system and raise the reliability of the entire weapon system to a new level.